February 23, 2024

When Agile was first experiencing large-scale adoption within the early 2000s, it revolutionized software program growth and conventional methods of working. In consequence, many staples of the Waterfall strategy had been seen as outmoded. One among these was the product necessities doc (PRD).

The PRD was as soon as described because the “single most important document the product supervisor maintains” by technologists Ben Horowitz and David Weiden, however its relevance and worth in product growth has been hotly debated for the previous 20 years. There are impassioned advocates, specialists who consider it to be defunct (see this 2006 blog post from product thought chief Marty Cagan), and plenty of others sitting on the fence.

All of them have legitimate factors. My perception, although, is that the problem is just not whether or not to make use of a PRD, however slightly how.

Organizations, merchandise, and markets all create a novel context for which there isn’t any one-size-fits-all PRD, however by implementing the following tips and recommendation the place relevant, and utilizing the free template offered under, you may revive the PRD and make it a invaluable element of your digital product growth course of.

The Worth of a Good Product Necessities Doc

In my a few years working as a product supervisor with numerous shoppers and groups, I’ve discovered the PRD to be a particularly useful gizmo, however its worth is dependent upon the way you put it to use and what it comprises. When a PRD is crafted thoughtfully and used with care, these are a number of the high-level advantages you may anticipate:

Inside alignment: A PRD is a superb instrument to attain group alignment, notably in distant or asynchronous settings. It acts as a guiding doc, making certain the group understands what they’re constructing, what they aren’t constructing, why they’re constructing it, what the priorities are, and the way success can be measured.

Exterior alignment: A PRD can have the identical outcomes for different stakeholders and shoppers, serving to groups handle the scope and outcomes of their undertaking transparently and talk adjustments proactively.

Collaboration: A PRD doesn’t exist to allow the autocracy of the product supervisor or anybody particular person. Slightly, it’s a instrument of and for steady collaboration. It’s a place the place engineers, designers, and product managers can collect collectively to work on defining person tales, for instance, or creating ongoing dialogue with shoppers about targets and priorities as contexts evolve and new learnings floor.

With a purpose to create an Agile-enabled PRD and reap these advantages, there are a number of widespread pitfalls you and your group should keep away from.

Methods to Keep away from Frequent Pitfalls

Earlier than Agile’s dominance the PRD was on the core of software program growth, capturing the very essence of the product. Due to its pre-Agile origins, a conventional PRD is extra suited to a Waterfall system with clearly outlined, sequential steps (i.e., definition, design, supply). However a PRD can and ought to be used as a principal factor in Agile settings too. We merely must adapt the format and content material of the PRD for a modern-day context. Listed here are my greatest practices:

1. Steadiness Rigidity With Flexibility

There are two methods to consider rigidity: the rigidity of the PRD itself, and rigidity in the best way it’s seen throughout the group. Each sorts generally happen when creating and utilizing a PRD, however we’ll handle the previous first.

A inflexible doc is close-ended, leaving no area for the group to analysis or implement different options throughout growth. However it’s best to make a acutely aware effort to steadiness readability on the specified end result of a undertaking with the pliability to make changes as you be taught new info. The Shape Up method, developed by former Basecamp Head of Product Ryan Singer, can be utilized that can assist you discover concord between offering the fastened course promised by a closed PRD and giving groups room to construct merchandise in an agile means.

An alternative choice to forestall the rigidity of a conventional PRD is to make use of it to explain measurable success standards. Within the context of a recreation app, for instance, the intention can be a ten% improve in customers sharing their scores on social media with a redesigned finish display and a smoother sharing expertise. This feature doesn’t specify one of the best resolution to attain this, thus permitting for extra granular analysis and discovery.

2. Deal with It As a Dwelling Doc

The way in which the PRD is seen throughout the group is paramount to its worth. How will you anticipate to be an agile group when working from a set doc? Likewise, how are you going to anticipate the doc to be just right for you for those who don’t use it in an agile means? When a PRD is used rigidly, by being strictly adhered to or enforced, it might impede inventive discussions and product discovery, encouraging a Waterfall mindset and hindering general agility.

Unconditionally following a set plan is a recipe for catastrophe in software program growth—contemplating your PRD “completed” is a typical but counterproductive strategy, because the doc will rapidly turn into outdated.

Endeavor to repeatedly refine the PRD and deal with it as a residing doc. Keep away from having a series of evaluation or approval each time a group member makes an adjustment. Most significantly, guarantee your group is effectively versed in a framework resembling Scrum, Kanban, or Excessive Programming, so they can reply to suggestions, incorporate new learnings, and continually reevaluate. If the group is working in an agile means, they’re extra possible to make use of the PRD in an agile means too.

3. Maintain Descriptions Temporary

One other widespread pitfall is to cram the PRD with too many particulars, leading to a big, verbose doc that’s obscure and keep. This usually occurs when extreme info is included throughout the characteristic description—each single characteristic factor, exhaustive design specs, or implementation directions.

Being temporary doesn’t imply sacrificing readability, nonetheless. A transparent PRD will nonetheless embody the basics: the objective of every characteristic, the important parts, and the rules for supply. Listed here are examples of various characteristic descriptions for a courting app:




Success display when there’s a match between two customers, with a method to join.

We want a hit display for each match that may excite the person and nudge them towards the following step (i.e., exchanging messages).

Type ought to match model and accessibility requirements.

Should-have parts:

  • Outstanding success message: “It’s a match!”
  • Outstanding name to motion (ship message)
  • Not as distinguished, however embody a simple method to preserve swiping

Moreover, we want to see personalization, e.g., profile footage and/or nicknames. As acceptable, haptic suggestions or vibration, animations, and so forth., ought to be utilized as effectively.

When there’s a match, a web page wants to seem throughout the total display that may present the message “It’s a match!” The display ought to embody profile photographs from each customers, in massive circles taking over 1 / 4 of the display every (with the person’s personal image on the left facet), and the message ought to be above these photographs.

Beneath the photographs, there ought to be two massive buttons, finish to finish, one with the textual content “Message now” and one with “Proceed swiping.”

On the buttons to the left of the textual content, there also needs to be icons: a chat bubble to message the match and a small coronary heart to proceed swiping. All textual content ought to be in colour #003366, apart from the buttons, which ought to have white textual content.

The display ought to seem with a fly-in from backside impact, with small fireworks, smiley faces, and coronary heart emojis flying round (seven fireworks, three smiley faces, and 4 hearts,).

Even within the “Temporary and Clear” instance, there’s doubtlessly superfluous info: For instance, the steering on model and accessibility requirements, and likewise on haptic suggestions, will not be mandatory if it applies to every characteristic and notably when organizations have design groups who’re conversant in these requirements. If so, you may tighten up the characteristic description much more.

Slightly than extensively outlining what’s included, it may be extra environment friendly in some circumstances to make use of a “gained’t do” listing, maybe in an out-of-scope part or utilizing the MoSCoW method. The listing ought to solely handle gadgets distinctive to the context or the place there could also be uncertainty, resembling gadgets faraway from the scope that may often be included, gadgets not aligned with laws, or edge circumstances.

An vital issue within the stage of element you select to incorporate may even be the group’s expertise and the maturity of the product. In case your group includes senior professionals who’ve labored collectively earlier than, or in case you are constructing a product that has established requirements and pointers, temporary documentation can be sufficient.

The well-known quote “I didn’t have time to jot down you a brief letter, so I wrote you a protracted one” is relevant right here. It can take quite a lot of effort to maintain the PRD temporary whereas speaking all the mandatory info, however it’s a worthwhile funding.

Use This Product Necessities Doc Template to Maximize Success

To get you began, I’ve channeled all my learnings and steering into the final word PRD free template, available for download. If, in its present type, it’s not suited on your distinctive context, experiment by eradicating or incorporating completely different parts to make it be just right for you.

An Agile-enabled PRD is a massively invaluable instrument. By protecting it temporary, versatile, and alive, your PRD can foster larger alignment, readability, and collaboration—all of that are important within the creation of modern, helpful merchandise.

A downloadable Product Requirements Document template. The first section asks for details relating to the product or initiative, the client, the product manager, and the date. There is then a section to outline the purpose of the PRD itself, followed by a section for an executive summary. The next section asks the following questions: Who are we building this product for? Why are we building this product? What are we building? What are we not building? The final section is a list of optional elements: feature list, desired outcomes, user experiences, or use cases; user flows or other diagrams; competitor landscape and market overview; tech stack and requirements; ideal team structure and roles; potential pitfalls; timeline; and go-to-market strategy.*

PRD Template Notes

The template is damaged into two components: obligatory and non-compulsory parts. Utilizing solely the previous will lead to a lean doc, sufficient to achieve the important thing advantages. Together with a number of the non-compulsory parts is really helpful to present extra particulars as wanted. Right here’s the right way to use the template successfully:

1. Doc Goal

This part is significant in defining what the PRD can be used for. Write a brief assertion or maybe three or 4 bullets describing its objective. For instance:

  • Doc discovery and collaboration with the shopper
  • Define MVP scope
  • Summarize completely different applied sciences and potentialities for growth
  • Element group wants as they come up

2. Govt Abstract

Give a high-level overview of the undertaking, its targets and targets, organizational and market context, and suggestions.

Professional tip: Fill out this part final, after you have the opposite parts in place.

3. Who, Why, What, and What Not

Who’re we constructing this product for? Record the principle person teams of the product, their wants, and ache factors.

Why are we constructing this product? Record the principle alternatives, hypotheses, and reasonings.

What are we constructing? Write a brief description of the product, its tough scope, or its principal options/elements.

What are we not constructing? Write a brief description of the functionalities that won’t be included and the the reason why.

Additional Studying on the Toptal Product Weblog: